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For other uses, see Engine (disambiguation).
“Motor” redirects here. For other uses, see Motor (disambiguation).

An engine or motor is a machine designed to convert energy into useful mechanical motion.[1][2]

Motors converting heat energy into motion are usually referred to as engines,[3] which come in many types. A common type is a heat engine such as an internal combustion engine which typically burns a fuel with air and uses the hot gases for generating power. External combustion engines such as steam engines use heat to generate motion via a separate working fluid.

Another common type of motor is the electric motor. This takes electrical energy and generates mechanical motion via varying electromagnetic fields.

Other motors including pneumatic motors that are driven by compressed air, and motors can be driven by elastic energy, such as springs. Some motors are driven by non combustive chemical reactions. Molecular motors like myosins in muscles generate useful mechanical motion in biological systems by chemical reactions like ATP hydrolysis.



[edit] Terminology

Originally an engine was a mechanical device that converted force into motion. Military devices such as catapults, trebuchets and battering rams are referred to as siege engines. The term “gin” as in cotton gin is recognised as a short form of the Old French word engin, in turn from the Latin ingenium, related to ingenious. Most devices used in the industrial revolution were referred to as engines, and this is where the steam engine gained its name.[citation needed]

In modern usage, the term is used to describe devices capable of performing mechanical work, as in the original steam engine. In most cases the work is produced by exerting a torque or linear force, which is used to operate other machinery which can generate electricity, pump water, or compress gas. In the context of propulsion systems, an air-breathing engine is one that uses atmospheric air to oxidise the fuel carried rather than supplying an independent oxidizer, as in a rocket.

In common usage, an engine burns or otherwise consumes fuel, and is differentiated from an electric machine (i.e., electric motor) that derives power without changing the composition of matter.[4] A heat engine may also serve as a prime mover, a component that transforms the flow or changes in pressure of a fluid into mechanical energy.[5] An automobile powered by an internal combustion engine may make use of various motors and pumps, but ultimately all such devices derive their power from the engine.

The term motor was originally used to distinguish the new internal combustion engine-powered vehicles from earlier vehicles powered by steam engines, such as the steam roller and motor roller, but may be used to refer to any engine.[citation needed]

[edit] History of engines

[edit] Antiquity

Simple machines, such as the club and oar (examples of the lever), are prehistoric. More complex engines using human power, animal power, water power, wind power and even steam power date back to antiquity. Human power was focused by the use of simple engines, such as the capstan, windlass or treadmill, and with ropes, pulleys, and block and tackle arrangements; this power was transmitted usually with the forces multiplied and the speed reduced. These were used in cranes and aboard ships in Ancient Greece, as well as in mines, water pumps and siege engines in Ancient Rome. The writers of those times, including Vitruvius, Frontinus and Pliny the Elder, treat these engines as commonplace, so their invention may be far more ancient. By the 1st century AD, various breeds of cattle and horses were used in mills, driving machines similar to those powered by humans in earlier times.

According to Strabo, a water powered mill was built in Kaberia of the kingdom of Mithridates during the 1st century BC. Use of water wheels in mills spread throughout the Roman Empire over the next few centuries. Some were quite complex, with aqueducts, dams, and sluices to maintain and channel the water, along with systems of gears, or toothed-wheels made of wood and metal to regulate the speed of rotation. In a poem by Ausonius in the 4th century AD, he mentions a stone-cutting saw powered by water. Hero of Alexandria is credited with many such wind and steam powered machines in the 1st century AD, including the Aeolipile, but it is not known if any of these were put to practical use.

[edit] Medieval

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During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution from the 9th to 13th centuries, Muslim engineers developed numerous innovative industrial uses of hydropower, early industrial uses of tidal power, wind power, and fossil fuels such as petroleum, together with the earliest large factory complexes (tiraz in Arabic).[6] The industrial uses of watermills in the Islamic world date back to the 7th century, whereas horizontal-wheeled and vertical-wheeled water mills were both in widespread use since at least the 9th century. A variety of industrial mills were invented in the Islamic world, including fulling mills, hullers, steel mills, sugar refineries, and windmills. By the 11th century, every province throughout the Islamic world had these industrial mills in operation, from the Middle East and Central Asia to al-Andalus and North Africa.[7]

Roman engineers invented water turbines in the 4th century AD, Muslim engineers employed gears in mills and water-raising machines, and pioneered the use of dams as a source of water power to provide additional power to watermills and water-raising machines.[8] Such advances made it possible for many industrial tasks that were previously driven by manual labour to be mechanized and driven by machinery to some extent in the medieval Islamic world.

In 1206, al-Jazari employed a crank-connecting rod system for two of his water-raising machines. A similar steam turbine later appeared in Europe a century later, which eventually led to the steam engine and Industrial Revolution in 18th century Europe.[9]

[edit] Industrial revolution

English inventor Sir Samuel Morland allegedly used gunpowder to drive water pumps in the 17th century. For more conventional, reciprocating internal combustion engines, the fundamental theory for two-stroke engines was established by Sadi Carnot, France, 1824, whilst the American Samuel Morey received a patent on April 1, 1826. Sir Dugald Clark (1854–1932) designed the first two-stroke engine in 1878 and patented it in England in 1881. Automotive engines have used a range of energy-conversion systems. These include electric, steam, solar, turbine, rotary, piston-type internal combustion engine.

Karl Benz was one of the leaders in the development of new engines. In 1878 he began to work on new designs. He concentrated his efforts on creating a reliable gas two-stroke engine that was more powerful, based on Nikolaus Otto‘s design of the four-stroke engine. Karl Benz showed his real genius, however, through his successive inventions registered while designing what would become the production standard for his two-stroke engine. Benz was granted a patent for it in 1879.

The lightweight petrol internal combustion engine, operating on a four-stroke Otto cycle, has been the most successful for automobiles, while the more efficient diesel engine is used for trucks and buses.

[edit] Horizontally opposed pistons

In 1896, Karl Benz was granted a patent for his design of the first engine with horizontally opposed pistons. Many BMW motorcycles use this engine type. His design created an engine in which the corresponding pistons move in horizontal cylinders and reach top dead center simultaneously, thus automatically balancing each other with respect to their individual momentums. Engines of this design are often referred to as flat engines because of their shape and lower profile. They must have an even number of cylinders and six, four or two cylinder flat engines have all been common. The most well-known engine of this type is probably the Volkswagen Beetle engine. Engines of this type continue to be a common design principle for high performance aero engines (for propeller driven aircraft) and, engines used by automobile producers such as Porsche and Subaru.

[edit] Advancement

Mercedes V6 engine in 1996

School model of engine

School model of an engine

Continuance of the use of the internal combustion engine for automobiles is partly due to the improvement of engine control systems (onboard computers providing engine management processes, and electronically controlled fuel injection). Forced air induction by turbocharging and supercharging have increased power outputs and engine efficiencies. Similar changes have been applied to smaller diesel engines giving them almost the same power characteristics as petrol engines. This is especially evident with the popularity of smaller diesel engine propelled cars in Europe. Larger diesel engines are still often used in trucks and heavy machinery. They do not burn as clean as gasoline engines, however they have far more torque. The internal combustion engine was originally selected for the automobile due to its flexibility over a wide range of speeds. Also, the power developed for a given weight engine was reasonable; it could be produced by economical mass-production methods; and it used a readily available, moderately priced fuel – petrol.

[edit] Increasing power

The first half of the 20th century saw a trend to increasing engine power, particularly in the American models. Design changes incorporated all known methods of raising engine capacity, including increasing the pressure in the cylinders to improve efficiency, increasing the size of the engine, and increasing the speed at which power is generated. The higher forces and pressures created by these changes created engine vibration and size problems that led to stiffer, more compact engines with V and opposed cylinder layouts replacing longer straight-line arrangements.

[edit] Combustion efficiency

The design principles favoured in Europe, because of economic and other restraints such as smaller and twistier roads, leant toward smaller cars and corresponding to the design principles that concentrated on increasing the combustion efficiency of smaller engines. This produced more economical engines with earlier four-cylinder designs rated at 40 horsepower (30 kW) and six-cylinder designs rated as low as 80 horsepower (60 kW), compared with the large volume V-8 American engines with power ratings in the range from 250 to 350 hp (190 to 260 kW).[citation needed]

[edit] Engine configuration

Earlier automobile engine development produced a much larger range of engines than is in common use today. Engines have ranged from 1 to 16 cylinder designs with corresponding differences in overall size, weight, piston displacement, and cylinder bores. Four cylinders and power ratings from 19 to 120 hp (14 to 90 kW) were followed in a majority of the models. Several three-cylinder, two-stroke-cycle models were built while most engines had straight or in-line cylinders. There were several V-type models and horizontally opposed two- and four-cylinder makes too. Overhead camshafts were frequently employed. The smaller engines were commonly air-cooled and located at the rear of the vehicle; compression ratios were relatively low. The 1970s and ’80s saw an increased interest in improved fuel economy which brought in a return to smaller V-6 and four-cylinder layouts, with as many as five valves per cylinder to improve efficiency. The Bugatti Veyron 16.4 operates with a W16 engine meaning that two V8 cylinder layouts are positioned next to each other to create the W shape.

The largest internal combustion engine ever built is the Wärtsilä-Sulzer RTA96-C, a 14-cylinder, 2-stroke turbocharged diesel engine that was designed to power the Emma Maersk, the largest container ship in the world. This engine weighs 2300 tons, and when running at 102 RPM produces 109,000 bhp (80,080 kW) consuming some 13.7 tons of fuel each hour.

[edit] Heat engine

Main article: heat engine

[edit] Combustion engine

Combustion engines are heat engines driven by the heat of a combustion process.

[edit] Internal combustion engine

Animation showing the four stages of the 4-stroke combustion engine cycle:
1. Induction (Fuel enters)
2. Compression
3. Ignition (Fuel is burnt)
4. Emission (Exhaust out)

The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of a fuel (generally, fossil fuel) occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high temperature and high pressure gases, which are produced by the combustion, directly applies force to components of the engine, such as the pistons or turbine blades or a nozzle, and by moving it over a distance, generates useful mechanical energy.[10][11][12][13]

[edit] External combustion engine

An external combustion engine (EC engine) is a heat engine where an internal working fluid is heated by combustion of an external source, through the engine wall or a heat exchanger. The fluid then, by expanding and acting on the mechanism of the engine produces motion and usable work.[14] The fluid is then cooled, compressed and reused (closed cycle), or (less commonly) dumped, and cool fluid pulled in (open cycle air engine).

Combustion” refers to burning fuel with an oxidizer, to supply the heat. Engines of similar (or even identical) configuration and operation may use a supply of heat from other sources such as nuclear, solar, geothermal or exothermic reactions not involving combustion; but are not then strictly classed as external combustion engines, but as external thermal engines.

The working fluid can be a gas as in a Stirling engine, or steam as in a steam engine or an organic liquid such as n-pentane in an Organic Rankine Cycle. The fluid can be of any composition; gas is by far the most common, although even single-phase liquid is sometimes used. In the case of the steam engine, the fluid changes phases between liquid and gas…

[edit] Gas turbine

A gas turbine is internal combustion is the sense that the combustion takes place in the working fluid, but external combustion in the sense that the combustion is not fully closed in and is outside the actual moving turbine section. Traditionally, “internal combustion” usually excludes gas turbines, jets and rockets.

[edit] Air-breathing combustion engines

Air-breathing engines are combustion engines that use the oxygen in atmospheric air to oxidise (‘burn’) the fuel carried, rather than carrying an oxidiser, as in a rocket. Theoretically, this should result in a better specific impulse than for rocket engines.

A continuous stream of air flows through the Air-breathing engine. This air is compressed, mixed with fuel, ignited and expelled as the exhaust gas. Thrust produced by a typical air-breathing engine is about eight times greater than its weight.[citation needed] The maximum velocity of Air-breathing engines is limited to 1–3 km/s due to extreme temperature and dissociation of the exhaust gas; however, the maximum velocity of a hydrogen-breathing engine of the same design is about 4 times higher.[citation needed]

[edit] Examples

Typical air-breathing engines include:

duct jet engine
Turbo-propeller engine

[edit] Environmental effects

Operation of engines typically has a negative impact upon air quality and ambient sound levels. There has been a growing emphasis on the pollution producing features of automotive power systems. This has created new interest in alternate power sources and internal-combustion engine refinements. Although a few limited-production battery-powered electric vehicles have appeared, they have not proved to be competitive owing to costs and operating characteristics. In the 21st century the diesel engine has been increasing in popularity with automobile owners. However, the gasoline engine, with its new emission-control devices to improve emission performance, has not yet been significantly challenged.

[edit] Air quality

Exhaust from a spark ignition engine consists of the following: nitrogen 70 to 75% (by volume), water vapor 10 to 12%, carbon dioxide 10 to 13.5%, hydrogen 0.5 to 2%, oxygen 0.2 to 2%, carbon monoxide: 0.1 to 6%, unburnt hydrocarbons and partial oxidation products (e.g. aldehydes) 0.5 to 1%, nitrogen monoxide 0.01 to 0.4%, nitrous oxide <100 ppm, sulfur dioxide 15 to 60 ppm, traces of other compounds such as fuel additives and lubricants, also halogen and metallic compounds, and other particles.[15] Carbon monoxide is highly toxic, and can cause carbon monoxide poisoning, so it is important to avoid any build-up of the gas in a confined space. Catalytic converters can reduce toxic emissions, but not completely eliminate them. Also, resulting greenhouse gas emissions, chiefly carbon dioxide, from the widespread use of engines in the modern industrialized world is contributing to the global greenhouse effect – a primary concern regarding global warming.

[edit] Non combustive heat engines

Main article: heat engine

Some engines convert heat from non combustive processes into mechanical work, for example a nuclear power plant uses the heat from the nuclear reaction to produce steam and drive a steam engine, or a gas turbine in a rocket engine may be driven by decomposing hydrogen peroxide. Apart from the different energy source, the engine is often engineered much the same as an internal or external combustion engine.

[edit] Non thermal chemically powered motor

Non thermal motors usually are powered by a chemical reaction, but are not heat engines. Examples include:

[edit] Electric motor

Main article: electric motor

An electric motor uses electrical energy to produce mechanical energy, usually through the interaction of magnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. The reverse process, producing electrical energy from mechanical energy, is accomplished by a generator or dynamo. Traction motors used on vehicles often perform both tasks. Electric motors can be run as generators and vice versa, although this is not always practical. Electric motors are ubiquitous, being found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives. They may be powered by direct current (for example a battery powered portable device or motor vehicle), or by alternating current from a central electrical distribution grid. The smallest motors may be found in electric wristwatches. Medium-size motors of highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial uses. The very largest electric motors are used for propulsion of large ships, and for such purposes as pipeline compressors, with ratings in the thousands of kilowatts. Electric motors may be classified by the source of electric power, by their internal construction, and by their application.

The physical principle of production of mechanical force by the interactions of an electric current and a magnetic field was known as early as 1821. Electric motors of increasing efficiency were constructed throughout the 19th century, but commercial exploitation of electric motors on a large scale required efficient electrical generators and electrical distribution networks.

By convention, electric engine refers to a railroad electric locomotive, rather than an electric motor.

[edit] Physically powered motor

Some motors are powered by potential energy, for example some funiculars, gravity plane and ropeway conveyors have used potential energy of water or rocks, and some clocks have a weight that falls under gravity. Other forms of potential energy include compressed gases (such as pneumatic motors), springs and elastic bands.

Historic military siege engines included large catapults, trebuchets, and (to some extent) battering rams were powered by potential energy.

[edit] Pneumatic motor

A pneumatic motor is a machine which converts potential energy in the form of compressed air into mechanical work. Pneumatic motors generally convert the compressed air to mechanical work though either linear or rotary motion. Linear motion can come from either a diaphragm or piston actuator, while rotary motion is supplied by either a vane type air motor or piston air motor. Pneumatic motors have found widespread success in the hand-held tool industry and continual attempts are being made to expand their use to the transportation industry. However, pneumatic motors must overcome efficiency deficiencies before being seen as a viable option in the transportation industry.

[edit] Hydraulic engine

Main article: hydraulic engine

A hydraulic engine one that derives its power from a pressurized fluid. This type of engine can be used to move heavy loads or produce motion.[16]

[edit] Sound levels

In the case of sound levels, engine operation is of greatest impact with respect to mobile sources such as automobiles and trucks. Engine noise is a particularly large component of mobile source noise for vehicles operating at lower speeds, where aerodynamic and tyre noise is less significant.[17] Petrol and diesel engines are fitted with mufflers (silencers) to reduce noise.

[edit] Engine efficiency

Main article: Engine efficiency

Depending on the type of engine employed, different rates of efficiency are attained.

[edit] Engines by use

Particularly notable kinds of engines include:

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/motor Dictionary.com: “a person or thing that imparts motion, esp. a contrivance, as a steam engine, that receives and modifies energy from some natural source in order to utilize it in driving machinery. “
  2. ^ Dictionary.com: (World heritage) “3. any device that converts another form of energy into mechanical energy to produce motion”
  3. ^ Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 10th Edition
  4. ^ “Engine”, McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Third Edition, Sybil P. Parker, ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994, p. 714.
  5. ^ “Prime mover”, McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, Third Edition, Sybil P. Parker, ed. McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994, p. 1498.
  6. ^ Maya Shatzmiller (1994), Labour in the Medieval Islamic World, p. 36, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09896-8.
  7. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), “Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe”, Technology and Culture 46 (1), pp. 1–30 [10].
  8. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering
  9. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan (1976). Taqi al-Din and Arabic Mechanical Engineering, pp. 34–5. Institute for the History of Arabic Science, University of Aleppo.
  10. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica: Internal Combustion engines
  11. ^ Answers.com Internal combustion engine
  12. ^ Columbia encyclopedia: Internal combustion engine
  13. ^ http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/sci/A0825332.html
  14. ^ external combustion – Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  15. ^ Paul Degobert, Society of Automative Engineers (1995), Automobiles and Pollution
  16. ^ http://reference.howstuffworks.com/hydraulic-engine-encyclopedia.htm
  17. ^ C. Michael Hogan, Analysis of Highway Noise, Journal of Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, Vol. 2, No 3, Biomedical and Life Sciences and Earth and Environmental Science Issue, Pages 387-392, Sept., 1973, Springer Verlag, Netherlands ISSN 0049-6979

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Engines
Look up engine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Look up motor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
[hide]v · d · eHeat engines
Thermodynamic cycle
[hide]v · d · eThermodynamic cycles
External combustion cycles
Without phase change
(Hot air engines)
With phase change
Internal combustion cycles
Mixed cycles
Refrigeration cycles

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